Wednesday, August 8, 2012

Sum of All the Possible Arrangements of Some Numbers

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 Questions to ponder: (detailed solutions below)
#1: Camy made a list of every possible distinct four-digit positive integer that can be formed using each of the digits 1, 2 , 3 and 4 exactly once in each integer. What is the sum of the integers on Camy's list?

#2: Camy made a list of every possible distinct five-digit positive even integer that can be formed using each of the digits 1, 3, 4, 5 and 9 exactly once in each integer. What is the sum of the integers on Camy's list? (2004 Mathcounts Chapter Sprint #29)













Solutions:
#1:  
Solution I: 
There are 4! = 24 ways to arrange the four digits. Since each digit appears evenly so each number will appear 24 / 4 = 6 times.
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10 and 10 times 6 = 60 ; 60 (1000 +100 +10 + 1) = 60 x 1111 = 66660, which is the answer.

Solution II: 
The median of four numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 is (1 + 2 + 3 + 4) / 4 = 2.5 and there are 4! = 24 ways to arrange
the four numbers. 
2.5 (1000 + 100 + 10 + 1) x 24 = 66660 

#2:  
Solution I: 
Since this time Camy wants five-digit even integer, which means that the number "4" has to be at the unit digit and only 1, 3, 5, 9 can be moved freely.
Again there are 4! = 24 ways to arrange the four numbers. 1 + 3 + 5 + 9 = 18 and 18 x 6 = 108 (Each number that can be moved freely appears 6 times evenly.)108 x 11110 + 4 x 24 = 1199976

Solution II: 

Since this time Camy wants five-digit even integer, which means that the number "4" has to be at the unit digit and only 1, 3, 5, 9 can be moved freely. 
There will be 4! = 24 times the even number 4 will be used so 4 x 24 = 96
As for the remaining 4 numbers, their average (or mean) is  \frac{1+ 3 + 5 + 9}{4} = 4.5                                      
4.5 * ( 10000 + 1000 + 100 + 10) * 24 (arrangements)  + 96 = 4.5 * 11110 * 24 + 96 = 1199976

Other applicable problems: (answers below)

#1: What is the sum of all the four-digit positive integers that can be written with the digits 1, 2, 3, 4 if each digit must be used exactly once in each four-digit positive integer? (2003 Mathcounts Sprint #30)

#2: What is the average (mean) of all 5-digit numbers that can be formed by using each of the digits 1, 3, 5, 7, and 8 exactly once? (You can use a calculator for this question.) (2005 AMC-10 B)

#3: What is the sum of all the four-digit positive integers that can be written with the digits 2, 4, 6, 8 if each digit must be used exactly once in each four-digit positive integer?

#4: What is the sum of all the 5-digit positive odd integers that can be written with the digits 2, 4, 6, 8, and 3 if each digit must be used exactly once in each five-digit positive integer?  

#5:What is the sum of all the four-digit positive integers that can be written with the digits 2, 3, 4, 5 if each digit must be used exactly once in each four-digit positive integer?






  





Answer key: 
#1: 66660
#2:  \frac{1+ 3 + 5 + 7 + 8}{5} = 4.8 * 11111 = \color{red}53332.8
#3: 133320
#4: 1333272
#5: 93324

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